About Klebsiella

General information:
The genus, Klebsiella, named after the microbiologist Edwin Klebs, are characterized as rod-shaped, Gram-negative γ-proteobacteria that can live in water, soil, and plants and are pathogenic to humans and animals.
For many years, the best characterized virulence determinants were capsule, lipopolysaccharide, siderophores, and type I and 3 fimbriae.
Genomic sequence analysis has not revealed virulence factors that typify Gram-negative pathogens, such as specialized secretion systems (type III, IV and V) for the export of effectors or obvious toxins.
K. pneumoniae causes a wide spectrum of both hospital- and community-acquired infections such as urinary tract infection, pneumonia, intraabdominal infection, bloodstream infection, meningitis and pyogenic liver abscess.
Selected genomes:comparative pathogenomics
K. oxytoca E718, 6097032 bp, NC_018106
K. oxytoca KCTC 1686, 5974109 bp, NC_016612
K. pneumoniae 342, 5641239 bp, NC_011283
K. pneumoniae JM45, 5273813 bp, NC_022082
K. pneumoniae KCTC 2242, 5259571 bp, NC_017540
K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae 1084, 5386705 bp, NC_018522
K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae HS11286, 5333942 bp, NC_016845
K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae MGH 78578, 5315120 bp, NC_009648
K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044, 5248520 bp, NC_012731
K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis SB3432, 5270770 bp, NC_021232
K. variicola At-22, 5458505 bp, NC_013850
K. pneumoniae CG43 pLVPK, 219385 bp, NC_005249
K. pneumoniae KCTC 2242 pKCTC2242, 202852 bp, NC_017541
K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044 pK2044, 224152 bp, NC_006625
Related publications:
Chen YT, et al., 2004. Sequencing and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pLVPK of Klebsiella pneumoniae CG43. Gene 337:189-98.
Fevre C, et al., 2011. PCR-based identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, the agent of rhinoscleroma. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(5):e1052.
Liu P, et al., 2012. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae HS11286, a multidrug-resistant strain isolated from human sputum. J Bacteriol 194(7):1841-2.
Shin SH, et al., 2012. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca KCTC 1686, used in production of 2,3-butanediol. J Bacteriol 194(9):2371-2.
Shin SH, et al., 2012. Complete genome sequence of the 2,3-butanediol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain KCTC 2242. J Bacteriol 194(10):2736-7.
Liao TL, et al., 2012. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca E718, a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing nosocomial strain. J Bacteriol 194(19):5454.
Lin AC, et al., 2012. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae 1084, a hypermucoviscosity-negative K1 clinical strain. J Bacteriol 194(22):6316.
Four well-characterized virulence factors in classical and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (Kp) strains (From: Paczosa MK, et al., 2016. Klebsiella pneumoniae: Going on the Offense with a Strong Defense. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 80(3):629-61.).

Major virulence factors in Klebsiella:
Type I fimbriae
Effector delivery system
Immune modulation
Type 3 fimbriae
Nutritional/Metabolic factor
Allantion utilization
Ent (Enterobactin)
Sal (Salmochelin)
Ybt (Yersiniabactin)
Antimicrobial activity/Competitive advantage
RcsAB (Regulation of capsule synthesis)
RmpA (Regulator of mucoid phenotype A)

Genomic location of virulence-related genes in Klebsiella:

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